Aniracetam Knowledgebase

Aniracetam is a very popular fat soluble member of the racetam family of nootropics. Aniracetam is primarily known for it’s simultaneous focus boosting and anxiety fighting effects1

Aniracetam is frequently used by college students and businessmen for it’s ability to increase productivity and focus. Aniracetam is so popular for a few reasons:

1. Aniracetam is good for your brain. Unlike neurotoxic stimulants such as Adderall and Ritallin, Aniracetam is actually good for your brain health. There is a substantial amount of research which demonstrates that Aniracetam is neuroprotective, and may even be an effective treatment for Alzheimers.234

2. Aniracetam gets becomes more effective the longer you use it. Rather than resulting in a tolerance buildup after prolonged usage like most other nootropics, the effects of Aniracetam actually get better over time. This is due to what is known as the buildup effect. When you take Aniracetam consistently it builds up in your system, and this leads to its beneficial effects becoming stronger over time. This effect is not permanent, and will go away after abstaining from Aniracetam usage.

3. It fucking works. With most nootropics there is a high degree of variability between people. A nootropic that works great for one person may have no effects on another. Something unique about Aniracetam is that it’s very consistent in it’s benefits to those who use it.

 

Aniracetam’s Effects

Positive

•Reduced Anxiety

•Increased Mood

•Increased Mental Acuity

Possible Side Effects

•Nausea

•Headaches

•Vertigo

•Insomnia

Aniracetam Dosage

The average dosage of Aniracetam is 800-2500mg

I recommend starting at the lower end of the dosage spectrum, and slowly working your way up. This method of dosage titration should be used with all new nootropics that you take. This helps to avoid any possible negative side effects.

Aniracetam has a relatively short span of effects, lasting only 2-3 hours. Because of this some people re-dose 1-2 times in a day after taking their initial dose.

For me personally, 1200mg twice a day is the perfect amount.

Buying Aniracetam

There are a few different places where you can buy Aniracetam, but it’s important to have discretion about where you get it from. Nootropics are often sourced from Chinese chemical production facilities with poor standards of quality control. There are many reports of nootropics produced in these facilities being low potency or tainted with heavy metals. Because of this I advise that you only buy nootropics from trustworthy sources which test their nootropics in house. I get mine here.

TAKING ANIRACETAM

In order to consume Aniracetam simply place the powder on your tongue, and quickly wash it down with some juice or water. Aniracetam does have a chemically taste (though not as bad as Phenibut), but it goes away pretty quickly if you was it down with something.

If swallowing a heaping pile of sour powder isn’t your cup of tea,  another way of consuming Aniracetam is to parachute it. Here’s how you do it:

Take a square of toilet paper or tissue and rip off a small piece, about 1/4 of it. Place your pile of Aniracetam in the center, then fold the sides of the wrapper up to the top and pinch them together. After doing this lightly wet the tip of the bundle, and twist it so it sticks.

Now simply place the parachute on your tongue, and wash it down with 180 proof grain alcohol (or water… I guess).

Stacking Aniracetam

Many people find that the benefits of Aniracetam are increased when combining it with other nootropics in a stack. If you plan on taking a combination, it is a smart idea to take lower doses of each nootropic than you would normally take when consuming them individually. Here are some of the commonly used stacks:

Aniracetam+Choline

This stack is the bread and butter of Aniracetam supplementation.

Aniracetam increases levels of acetylcholine in the brain, so like the other members of the racetam family it is a good idea to take it with a choline supplement. Choline is a building block of acetylcholine, and without supplementing it you may get choline fatigue, which can result in result in brain fog, lethargy and headaches.

These are the three most commonly used types of choline:

1. Citicholine

2. Alpha GPC

3. Choline Bitartrate

Citicholine is the least cheapest and least effective of these, and Alpha GPC is the best and most expensive. If you don’t mind shelling out a bit extra I recommend going with the Alpha GPC, but if not either of the other two will get the job done.

Aniracetam+Piracetam

This stack is generally very favored among those who use Aniracetam. Piracetam has a slightly stimulating side to it, and this can combine well with the zen anxiolytic effect of Aniracetam.

If you decide to give this stack a go, start with a lower than average dosage of each, as they potentiate each other.

My Experience

Since I was young I have always struggled with anxious internal dialogue. It’s as if I have this negative voice inside of my head that is constantly telling me I’m not good enough to get girls, make more money, or be successful.

When I take Aniracetam this feeling goes away, and I am able to go about my day without being assaulted by negative thoughts. This effect which I and many others experience from Aniracetam is likely due to to the way in which it increases Alpha brain waves. Alpha brain waves are associated with meditative states and relaxation.  [1. Ulrich Kraft. Train Your Brain-Mental exercises with neurofeedback may ease symptoms of attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy and depression–and even boost cognition in healthy brains. Scientific American. 2006]5

A study conducted on Piracetam, Aniracetam’s close cousin demonstrated that it increases the frequency of alpha brain waves. Aniracetam very likely shares this effect.6

Conclusion

It’s beginning safety profile combined with it’s effectiveness makes Aniracetam a very versatile nootropic. If you struggle with anxious thoughts, you are unlikely to find a treatment as effective as Aniracetam. You may not get the exact same effects as me or others, but it you feel that anxiety is negatively effecting your life, and you have $30 to spare, then you should consider trying Aniracetam.

Where I get mine

________________________

Additional sources

Knapp RJ, Goldenberg R, Shuck C, Cecil A, Watkins J, Miller C, Crites G, Malatynska E. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2002 Apr 5;440(1):27-35. Antidepressant activity of memory-enhancing drugs in the reduction of submissive behavior model.

Ito I, Tanabe S, Kohda A, Sugiyama H. Allosteric potentiation of quisqualate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam. Journal of Physiology 424: 533–543.

Nakamura K1, Kurasawa M. Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism. European Journal of Pharmacology. (Kanagawa, Japan). 420 (1): 33–43]

Julie C. Lauterborn, Eduardo Pineda, Lulu Y. Chen, Eduardo A. Ramirez, Gary Lynch, Christine M. Gall. Ampakines cause sustained increases in BDNF signaling at excitatory synapses without changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression. Neuroscience. 2009 Mar 3; 159(1): 283–295.

Simmons DA, Rex CS, Palmer L, Pandyarajan V, Fedulov V, Gall CM, Lynch G. Up-regulating BDNF with an ampakine rescues synaptic plasticity and memory in Huntington’s disease knockin mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 24;106(12):4906-11.

Lauterborn JC1, Truong GS, Baudry M, Bi X, Lynch G, Gall CM. Chronic elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by ampakines. Journal of Pharmacology Exp Ther. 2003 Oct;307(1):297-305

Julie C. Lauterborn, Gary Lynch, Peter Vanderklish, Amy Arai and Christine M. Gall. Journal of Neuroscience. 2000 Jan 1;20(1):8-21. Positive modulation of AMPA receptors increases neurotrophin expression by hippocampal and cortical neurons.

Devin K. Binder, Helen E. Scharfman. “Brain-derived neurotrophic factor”. Growth Factors. 22 (3): 123–31. Acheson A1, Conover JC, Fandl JP, DeChiara TM, Russell M, Thadani A, Squinto SP, Yancopoulos GD, Lindsay RM. “A BDNF autocrine loop in adult sensory neurons prevents cell death”. Nature. 374 (6521): 450–3.

This study presents some compelling data that BDNF can prevent the death of brain cells.

Zigova T1, Pencea V, Wiegand SJ, Luskin MB., ”Intraventricular administration of BDNF increases the number of newly generated neurons in the adult olfactory bulb”. Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. 11 (4): 234–45.

Pencea V1, Bingaman KD, Wiegand SJ, Luskin MB. “Infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor into the lateral ventricle of the adult rat leads to new neurons in the parenchyma of the striatum, septum, thalamus, and hypothalamus”. The Journal of Neuroscience. 21 (17): 6706–17.

Pedro Bekinschtein, Martín Cammarota, Cynthia Katche, Leandro Slipczuk, Janine I. Rossato , Andrea Goldin, Ivan Izquierdo and Jorge H. Medina,  BDNF is essential to promote persistence of long-term memory storage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008 Feb 19; 105(7): 2711–2716.

Cai S, Wang L. Determination of aniracetam’s main metabolite, N-anisoyl-GABA, in human plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study. J. Chromatogr. B 897: 50-54, 2012.

Zhang J, Liang J, Tian Y, et al. Sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of aniracetam in human plasma. J. Chromatogr. B 858: 129-134, 2007.

Malykh AG; Sadaie MR (Feb 2010). “Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders.”. Drugs. 70 (3): 287–312

Vaglenova J, Pandiella N, Wijayawardhane N, Vaithianathan T, Birru S, Breese C, Suppiramaniam V, Randal C.  Aniracetam reversed learning and memory deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure by modulating functions of synaptic AMPA receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Apr;33(5):1071-83.

Ouchi Y1, Kakiuchi T, Okada H, Nishiyama S, Tsukada H. The effect of aniracetam on cerebral glucose metabolism in rats after lesioning of the basal forebrain measured by PET . Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 1999 Mar 15;164(1):7-12.

Tian Y1, Zhang JJ, Feng SD, Zhang ZJ, Chen Y. Arzneimittelforschung. 2008;58(10):497-500.  Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence study of aniracetam after single-dose administration in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

Nakamura K, Kurasawa M Serotonergic mechanisms involved in the attentional and vigilance task performance of rats and the palliative action of aniracetam . Naunyn Schmiedebergs Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology. 2000 May;361(5):521-8.

Francotte P1, de Tullio P, Fraikin P, Counerotte S, Goffin E, Pirotte B. In search of novel AMPA potentiators . Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery. 2006 Nov;1(3):239-46.

Beninger RJ1, Wirsching BA, Jhamandas K, Boegman RJ. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 1989;1:71-89. Animal studies of brain acetylcholine and memory.

Michael E. Hasselmo, Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 2006 Dec; 16(6): 710–715. The Role of Acetylcholine in Learning and Memory.

Hasselmo ME1, Anderson BP, Bower JM. Cholinergic modulation of cortical associative memory function. Journal of Neurophysiology. 1992 May;67(5):1230-46.

Liljenström H1, Hasselmo ME. Cholinergic modulation of cortical oscillatory dynamics. Journal of Neurophysiology. 1995 Jul;74(1):288-97.

Min Wu, Marya Shanabrough, Csaba Leranth and Meenakshi Alreja, The Journal of Neuroscience, 15 May 2000, 20(10) 3900-3908; Cholinergic excitation of septohippocampal GABA but not cholinergic neurons: implications for learning and memory.

Wu M1, Newton SS, Atkins JB, Xu C, Duman RS, Alreja M. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors activate septohippocampal GABAergic neurons via muscarinic but not nicotinic receptors. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2003 Nov;307(2):535-43. Epub 2003 Sep 9.

Senin U1, Abate G, Fieschi C, Gori G, Guala A, Marini G, Villardita C, Parnetti L, Aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) in the treatment of senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT): results of a placebo controlled multicentre clinical study. European Neuropsychopharmacology

Elston TW, Pandian A, Smith GD, Holley AJ, Gao N, Lugo JN. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8)

Papandreou G, Zorpas K, Archontaki H. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of aniracetam and its related substances in the bulk drug and a tablet formulation. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. Volume 56, Issue 3, 1 November 2011, Pages 615–622.

Dubiela FP, Queiroz CM, Moreira KD, Nobrega JN, Sita LV, Tufik S, Hipolide DC. AMPA receptors mediate passive avoidance deficits induced by sleep deprivation. Behavioural Brain Research

Nakamura K. Aniracetam: its novel therapeutic potential in cerebral dysfunctional disorders based on recent pharmacological discoveries. CNS Drug Reviews 2002 Spring;8(1):70-89.

Shirane M, Nakamura K. Aniracetam enhances cortical dopamine and serotonin release via cholinergic and glutamatergic mechanisms in SHRSP. Brain Research. 2002 Feb 1;926(1-2):197.

Nakada Y, Yokoyama O, Komatsu K, Kodama K, Yotsuyanagi S, Niikura S, Nagasaka Y, Namiki M. Effects of aniracetam on bladder overactivity in rats with cerebral infarction. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2000 Jun;293(3):921-8.

Dubiela FP1, Queiroz CM, Moreira KD, Nobrega JN, Sita LV, Tufik S, Hipolide DC.  Aniracetam and DNQX affect the acquisition of rapid tolerance to ethanol in mice. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 92(1):32-8 /react-text react-text: 53  ·  /react-text react-text: 54 November 2008.

Kolta A, Lynch G, Ambros-Ingerson J. Effects of aniracetam after LTP induction are suggestive of interactions on the kinetics of the AMPA receptor channel. Brain Research, 1998 Mar 30;788(1-2):269-86.

Himori N, Suzuki T, Ueno K. Aniracetam, a pyrrolidinone-type cognition enhancer, attenuates the hydroxyl free radical formation in the brain of mice with brain ischaemia. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 1995 Mar;47(3):253-8.

Kuwahara A, Kubota A, Hakkei M, Nakamura K. [Drug dependence test on a cerebral insufficiency improver, aniracetam]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1987 Jan;89(1):33-46.

Baranova AI, Whiting MD, Hamm RJ. Delayed, post-injury treatment with aniracetam improves cognitive performance after traumatic brain injury in rats. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2006 Aug;23(8):1233-40.

Tanaka Y, Kurasawa M, Nakamura K. Cholinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms involved in the recovery of circadian anticipation by aniracetam in aged rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2002 May;72(1-2):45-53.

Nakamura K, Tanaka Y. Antidepressant-like effects of aniracetam in aged rats and its mode of action. Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 2001 Nov;158(2):205-12.

Galeotti N, Ghelardini C, Bartolini A. Piracetam and aniracetam antagonism of centrally active drug-induced antinociception. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996 Apr;53(4):943-50.

Fallarino F, Genazzani AA, Silla S, L’Episcopo MR, Camici O, Corazzi L, Nicoletti F, Fioretti MC. [3H]aniracetam binds to specific recognition sites in brain membranes. J Neurochem. 1995 Aug;65(2):912-8.

Toide K. Effects of aniracetam on one-trial passive avoidance tests and cholinergic neurons in discrete brain regions of rats. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1989

Yu S, Cai J. Effects of aniracetam on extracellular levels of transmitter amino acids in the hippocampus of the conscious gerbils: an intracranial microdialysis study. Neurosci Lett. 2003

Tsuzuki K, Takeuchi T, Ozawa S. Agonist- and subunit-dependent potentiation of glutamate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1992

Yamada K, Inoue T, Tanaka M, Furukawa T. Prolongation of latencies for passive avoidance responses in rats treated with aniracetam or piracetam. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985

Pontecorvo MJ, Evans HL. Effects of aniracetam on delayed matching-to-sample performance of monkeys and pigeons. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985

Gabryel B, Chalimoniuk M, Ma?ecki A, Strosznajder J. Effect of aniracetam on phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha in cytosolic and plasma membrane fractions of astrocytes subjected to simulated ischemia in vitro. Pharmacol Rep. 2005

Nakamura K, Shirane M. Activation of the reticulothalamic cholinergic pathway by the major metabolites of aniracetam. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999

Staubli U, Ambros-Ingerson J, Lynch G. Receptor changes and LTP: an analysis using aniracetam, a drug that reversibly modifies glutamate (AMPA) receptors. Hippocampus. 1992

Ventra C, Grimaldi M, Meucci O, Scorziello A, Apicella A, Filetti E, Marino A, Schettini G. Aniracetam improves behavioural responses and facilitates signal transduction in the rat brain. J Psychopharmacol. 1994

Asztely F, Hanse E, Wigström H, Gustafsson B. Aniracetam-evoked potentiation does not interact with long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Synapse. 1992

Li Y, Wang JJ, Cai JX. Aniracetam restores the effects of amyloid-beta protein or ageing on membrane fluidity and intracellular calcium concentration in mice synaptosomes. J Neural Transm. 2007

Wijayawardhane N, Shonesy BC, Vaglenova J, Vaithianathan T, Carpenter M, Breese CR, Dityatev A, Suppiramaniam V. Postnatal aniracetam treatment improves prenatal ethanol induced attenuation of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Neurobiol Dis. 2007

Chapman AG, al-Zubaidy Z, Meldrum BS. Aniracetam reverses the anticonvulsant action of NBQX and GYKI 52466 in DBA/2 mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993

Gabryel B, Adamczyk J, Huzarska M, Pude?ko A, Trzeciak HI. Aniracetam attenuates apoptosis of astrocytes subjected to simulated ischemia in vitro. Neurotoxicology. 2002

Nakamura K, Shirane M, Koshikawa N. Site-specific activation of dopamine and serotonin transmission by aniracetam in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rats. Brain Res. 2001

Pizzi M, Consolandi O, Memo M, Spano P. N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity in hippocampal slices: protection by aniracetam. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995

Himori N, Mishima K. Amelioration by aniracetam of abnormalities as revealed in choice reaction performance and shuttle behavior. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994

Cumin R, Bandle EF, Gamzu E, Haefely WE. Effects of the novel compound aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) upon impaired learning and memory in rodents. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1982

Koike H, Saito H, Matsuki N. Inhibitory effect of aniracetam on N-type calcium current in acutely isolated rat neuronal cells. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1993

Lawrence JJ, Brenowitz S, Trussell LO. The mechanism of action of aniracetam at synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors: indirect and direct effects on desensitization. Mol Pharmacol. 2003

Togashi H, Nakamura K, Matsumoto M, Ueno K, Ohashi S, Saito H, Yoshioka M. Aniracetam enhances glutamatergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neurosci Lett. 2002

Pizzi M, Fallacara C, Arrighi V, Memo M, Spano PF. Attenuation of excitatory amino acid toxicity by metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists and aniracetam in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells. J Neurochem. 1993

Sourander LB, Portin R, Mölsä P, Lahdes A, Rinne UK. Senile dementia of the Alzheimer type treated with aniracetam: a new nootropic agent. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1987

Shen Y, Lu T, Yang XL. Modulation of desensitization at glutamate receptors in isolated crucian carp horizontal cells by concanavalin A, cyclothiazide, aniracetam and PEPA. Neuroscience. 1999

Pan Y, Dai T, Yang Q. [Influence of aniracetam on the learning ability, memory ability and the expression of BCL-2 of hippocampal in vascular dementia model rats]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2009

Smith AM, Wehner JM. Aniracetam improves contextual fear conditioning and increases hippocampal gamma-PKC activation in DBA/2J mice. Hippocampus. 2002

Nakamura K, Kurasawa M. Aniracetam restores motivation reduced by satiation in a choice reaction task in aged rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001

Somnier FE, Ostergaard MS, Boysen G, Bruhn P, Mikkelsen BO. Aniracetam tested in chronic psychosyndrome after long-term exposure to organic solvents. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study with neuropsychological tests. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1990

Kimura M, Okano S, Inoué S. Effects of aniracetam on impaired sleep patterns in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000

Canonico V, Forgione L, Paoletti C, Casini A, Colonna CV, Bertini M, Acito R, Rengo F. [Efficacy and tolerance of aniracetam in elderly patients with primary or secondary mental deterioration]. Riv Neurol. 1991

Zajaczkowski W, Danysz W. Effects of D-cycloserine and aniracetam on spatial learning in rats with entorhinal cortex lesions. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997

Fushiki S, Matsumoto K, Nagata A. Neurite outgrowth of murine cerebellar granule cells can be enhanced by aniracetam with or without alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA). Neurosci Lett. 1995

Martin JR, Moreau JL, Jenck F. Aniracetam reverses memory impairment in rats. Pharmacol Res. 1995

Xiao P, Staubli U, Kessler M, Lynch G. Selective effects of aniracetam across receptor types and forms of synaptic facilitation in hippocampus. Hippocampus. 1991

Kraaier V, van Huffelen AC, Wieneke GH. The hyperventilation-induced ischaemia model in human neuropharmacology: neurophysiological and psychometric studies of aniracetam and 3-OH aniracetam. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1989

Martin JR, Cumin R, Aschwanden W, Moreau JL, Jenck F, Haefely WE. Aniracetam improves radial maze performance in rats. Neuroreport. 1992

Wijayawardhane N, Shonesy BC, Vaithianathan T, Pandiella N, Vaglenova J, Breese CR, Dityatev A, Suppiramaniam V. Ameliorating effects of preadolescent aniracetam treatment on prenatal ethanol-induced impairment in AMPA receptor activity. Neurobiol Dis. 2008

Rao Y, Xiao P, Xu S. Effects of intrahippocampal aniracetam treatment on Y-maze avoidance learning performance and behavioral long-term potentiation in dentate gyrus in rat. Neurosci Lett. 2001

Isaacson JS, Nicoll RA. Aniracetam reduces glutamate receptor desensitization and slows the decay of fast excitatory synaptic currents in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991

Ghamari-Langroudi M, Glavinovíc MI. Changes of spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells induced by aniracetam. Pflugers Arch. 1998

Petkov VD, Mosharrof AH, Milenkov B, Enev V. Learning and memory effects of four newly-synthesized aniracetam analogues. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1989

Stancheva SL, Alova LG. [Effect of centrophenoxine, piracetam and aniracetam on the monoamine oxidase activity in different brain structures of rats]. Farmakol Toksikol. 1988

Endo H, Tajima T, Yamada H, Igata A, Yamamoto Y, Tsuchida H, Nakashima Y, Suzuki Y, Ikari H, Iguchi A. Pharmacokinetic study of aniracetam in elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease. Behav Brain Res. 1997

Nakamura K, Kurasawa M, Shirane M. Impulsivity and AMPA receptors: aniracetam ameliorates impulsive behavior induced by a blockade of AMPA receptors in rats. Brain Res. 2000

Johansen TH, Chaudhary A, Verdoorn TA. Interactions among GYKI-52466, cyclothiazide, and aniracetam at recombinant AMPA and kainate receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1995

Partin KM, Fleck MW, Mayer ML. AMPA receptor flip/flop mutants affecting deactivation, desensitization, and modulation by cyclothiazide, aniracetam, and thiocyanate. J Neurosci. 1996

Ozawa S, Iino M, Abe M. Excitatory synapse in the rat hippocampus in tissue culture and effects of aniracetam. Neurosci Res. 1991

Nishizaki T, Matsumura T. The aniracetam metabolite 2-pyrrolidinone induces a long-term enhancement in AMPA receptor responses via a CaMKII pathway. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002

Vincent G, Verderese A, Gamzu E. The effects of aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) on the enhancement and protection of memory. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1985

Spignoli G, Pepeu G. Interactions between oxiracetam, aniracetam and scopolamine on behavior and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1987

Saletu B, Grünberger J. The hypoxia model in human psychopharmacology: neurophysiological and psychometric studies with aniracetam i.v. Hum Neurobiol. 1984

Vaglenova J, Pandiella N, Wijayawardhane N, Vaithianathan T, Birru S, Breese C, Suppiramaniam V, Randal C. Aniracetam reversed learning and memory deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure by modulating functions of synaptic AMPA receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008

Satoh M, Ishihara K, Iwama T, Takagi H. Aniracetam augments, and midazolam inhibits, the long-term potentiation in guinea-pig hippocampal slices. Neurosci Lett. 1986

Wang YF, Li CC, Cai JX. Aniracetam attenuates H2O2-induced deficiency of neuron viability, mitochondria potential and hippocampal long-term potentiation of mice in vitro. Neurosci Bull. 2006

Tanaka Y, Kurasawa M, Nakamura K. Recovery of diminished mealtime-associated anticipatory behavior by aniracetam in aged rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000

Boxall AR, Garthwaite J. Synaptic excitation mediated by AMPA receptors in rat cerebellar slices is selectively enhanced by aniracetam and cyclothiazide. Neurochem Res. 1995

Petkov VD, Grahovska T, Petkov VV, Konstantinova E, Stancheva S. Changes in the brain biogenic monoamines of rats, induced by piracetam and aniracetam. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1984

Tang CM, Shi QY, Katchman A, Lynch G. Modulation of the time course of fast EPSCs and glutamate channel kinetics by aniracetam. Science. 1991

Nakamura K, Kurasawa M, Tanaka Y. Apomorphine-induced hypoattention in rats and reversal of the choice performance impairment by aniracetam. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998

Foltyn P, Lücker PW, Schnitker J, Wetzelsberger N. [A test model for cerebrally-active drugs as demonstrated by the example of the new substance aniracetam]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1983

Katsunuma H, Shimizu T, Ogawa K, Kubo H, Ishida H, Yoshihama A. Treatment of insomnia by concomitant therapy with Zopiclone and Aniracetam in patients with cerebral infarction, cerebroatrophy, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998

Schwam E, Keim K, Cumin R, Gamzu E, Sepinwall J. The effects of aniracetam on primate behavior and EEG. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1985

Ogiso T, Uchiyama K, Suzuki H, Yoshimoro M, Tanino T, Iwakai M, Uno S. Pharmacokinetics of aniracetam and its metabolites in rat brain. Biol Pharm Bull. 2000

Ogiso T, Iwaki M, Tanino T, Ikeda K, Paku T, Horibe Y, Suzuki H. Pharmacokinetics of aniracetam and its metabolites in rats. J Pharm Sci. 1998

Bartolini L, Casamenti F, Pepeu G. Aniracetam restores object recognition impaired by age, scopolamine, and nucleus basalis lesions. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996

Wesnes K, Anand R, Simpson P, Christmas L. The use of a scopolamine model to study the potential nootropic effects of aniracetam and piracetam in healthy volunteers. J Psychopharmacol. 1990

Mizuki Y, Yamada M, Kato I, Takada Y, Tsujimaru S, Inanaga K, Tanaka M. Effects of aniracetam, a nootropic drug, in senile dementia–a preliminary report. Kurume Med J. 1984

Nagasaka T, Togashi S, Amino A, Nitta K, Shindo K, Shiozawa Z. Aniracetam for treatment of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. Eur Neurol. 1997

  1.  Nakamura K; Kurasawa M (May 2001). “Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism”. Eur J Pharmacol. (Kanagawa, Japan). 420 (1): 33–43.
  2. Kazuo Nakamura. Aniracetam: Its Novel Therapeutic Potential in Cerebral Dysfunctional Disorders Based on Recent Pharmacological Discoveries CNS Drugs Reviews, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 70-89, March 2002.
  3. Lee CR1, Benfield P. Aniracetam, an overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders. Drugs Aging. 1994 Mar;4(3):257-73.
  4. Koliaki CC1, Messini C, Tsolaki M. Clinical efficacy of aniracetam, either as monotherapy or combined with cholinesterase inhibitors, in patients with cognitive impairment: a comparative open study. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2012 Apr;18(4):302-12. 2011 Feb 26.
  5.  Niedermeyer E (1997). “Alpha rhythms as physiological and abnormal phenomena”. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 26 (1-3): 31–49.
  6.  Vorobyov V1, Kaptsov V, Kovalev G, Sengpiel F. Effects of nootropics on the EEG in conscious rats and their modification by glutamatergic inhibitors. Brain Res Bull. 2011 May 30;85(3-4):123-32. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.02.011. Epub 2011 Mar 15.

3 Comments

  1. NootReviews Author Megan
  2. NootReviews Author Clara

Leave a Reply